BBC News/Nov. 6, 2018

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Holocaust trial: Germany tries former SS guard at Stutthof camp

A former SS guard has gone on trial in Germany accused of complicity in mass murder at a Nazi death camp during World War Two.

Identified as Johann Rehbogen, the 94-year-old served in the Stutthof camp in what is now northern Poland from June 1942 to September 1944. He denies knowing anything about atrocities committed there. Because he was not yet aged 21, he is being tried in a juvenile court in Münster, western Germany.

The former guard, who uses a wheelchair, faces a sentence of 15 years if convicted but is unlikely to serve any time in prison because of his advanced age. His court appearances will be limited to two hours at a time for the same reason, Dortmund prosecutor Andreas Brendel told AFP news agency.

What are the accusations?

The defendant, along with another former SS guard, is suspected of involvement in the murder of hundreds of people at the camp. According to a court press release, the crimes include the use of Zyklon B poison gas to kill:

  • More than 100 Polish prisoners on 21-22 June 1944
  • At least 77 wounded Soviet prisoners-of-war during the summer of 1944
  • An unknown number of Jewish prisoners said to be "probably several hundred", between August and the end of 1944, some of whom were killed in railway carriages

The indictment lists other atrocities including the shooting of "several hundred" Jews deemed unfit for work between June 1944 and April 1945, and the killing of 140 people, including Jewish women and children, between 1942 and the end of 1944 with poison injections to the heart. Other prisoners were deliberately left to freeze to death in the winter of 1943-44.

The defendant is "accused in his capacity as a guard of participating in the killing operations", said Mr Brendel. It has still to be determined whether the other former SS guard is fit to stand trial.

What was Stutthof?

Located near the city of Danzig (now Gdansk), it was originally an internment camp before being officially designated a concentration camp in 1942. From June 1944, prisoners were murdered in a gas chamber. More than 65,000 people died in Stutthof before it was liberated by the Soviet Army on 9 May 1945.

Who is the defendant?

Johann Rehbogen was captured by the US Army after the war but returned to civilian life, working as a landscape architect for the North Rhine-Westphalia state authorities. Questioned by police last year, he denied knowing about atrocities in the camp. Although he was not named by the court in Münster, his name has been published by the Wiesenthal Center, which investigates Nazi war crimes.

"If one looks at how many evil doings and crimes were perpetuated, one can understand why elderly people too have to face prosecution," said Mr Brendel. "Germany owes it to the families and victims to prosecute these Nazi crimes even today. That is a legal and moral question."

How do survivors regard the trial?

Relatives of those murdered at Stutthof are attending the trial. Among them is one of the plaintiffs, Ben Cohen, whose grandmother Judy Meisel is a survivor of the camp. He told the BBC it was good for her to see Germany pursue the case.

"Her being able to witness even some of this process, even from afar, is a sense of closure," he said. "To have Germany listening to her is very powerful for her. "I speak to her all the time and I can see a new perspective that this gives her on things, so that could maybe be considered a form of closure. But closure is a difficult word in this context." 


Bill Gates brandishes poo to showcase reinvented toilet tech

Billionaire philanthropist and Microsoft founder Bill Gates had his hands full on-stage in Beijing on Tuesday, showing a jar of human faeces. The stunt was part of his speech at the Reinvented Toilet Expo event - a showcase for new toilet technologies.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has spent more than $200m on researching the field across the last seven years. Twenty cutting-edge sanitation products were on display, intended to destroy harmful bacteria and prevent disease.

"I have to say, a decade ago I never imagined that I'd know so much about poop," Mr Gates joked at the conference. "And I definitely never thought that Melinda would have to tell me to stop talking about toilets and faecal sludge at the dinner table."

The entrepreneur was helping to launch the three-day event in China - where leader Xi Jinping has made a so-called "toilet revolution" across the country a policy priority. The showcased products aim to revolutionise sanitation technology by operating off-grid to separate liquid and solid waste and remove harmful by-products.

"It's no longer a question of if we can reinvent the toilet and other sanitation systems," he said. "It's a question of how quickly this new category of off-grid solutions will scale." The entrepreneur described the inventions on display as the "most significant advances in sanitation in nearly 200 years".

Deadly disease

The technology giant pointed out the jar of faeces beside him could contain "as many as 200 trillion rotavirus... 20 billion Shigella bacteria, and 100,000 parasitic worm eggs".

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 2.3 billion people around the world still don't have access to basic sanitation facilities. This can cause diseases like cholera, diarrhoea and dysentery which kill hundreds of thousands of people every year. Speaking to the BBC, Mr Gates discussed the inequalities in sanitation access.

"In rich countries we have sewers that take clean water in, flush some of the dirty water out, in almost all cases there's a treatment plant," he said. "As we have these newer cities with lots of less wealthy people in them, those sewers have not been built and in fact, it's not likely they ever will be, so the question is, could you do it? Could you process human waste without that sewer system?"

The foundation has said they hope the reinvented toilet will first roll out in buildings like schools and apartment buildings, before costs gradually decline and they become affordable in households.

"You're only going to pay hundreds of dollars for a toilet - if it's really fantastic maybe $500," Mr Gates told the BBC. "You're saving all the costs of the waters, the processing products, but we have to bring it down by almost a factor of 10 from what the models are like - but that's not atypical for new product markets."

On his trip, Mr Gates also appeared at the First China International Import Expo in Shanghai, at a time of tension between the US and China. The world's two largest economies have been engaged in a tit-for-tat trade war over tariffs for much of the year.